lncreased litter moisture decreases litter quality and can lead to production issues including but not limited to elevated ammonia levels, increased problems with footpad quality and dirty eggs. lmproving nutrient digestibility by supplementing betaine can also impact litter moisture. During the commercial trial, litter samples throughout bath houses were collected at 35, 45 and 55 weeks. Although as seen in Table 1, litte r moisture was well-managed , adding betaine hydrochloride significantly reduced moisture by over 3%. Using betaine hydrochloride instead of choline chloride, especially in houses that are in need to control moisture may be a useful tool for producers. Mortality and livability are also key attributors toa successful tlock. As seen in Table 2, betaine reduced mortality of the tlock by up to 1.98%
Beta-Key: improving table egg quality
As a potent osmolyte, betaine enables animals to be better equipped to handle environmental stress which is a daily occurrence for layers in peak production. The osmotic properties of betaine were hypothesized to be stored into the egg, allowing the egg to reduce cell and protein degradation associated with egg quality. At 35 and 45 weeks, a total of 40 eggs were collected trom each house and sent to a university to measure egg weights, Haugh units and albumin heights. At 55 weeks, half of the collected eggs were stored at room temperature for 7 days before albumin height and Haugh units were measured. As seen in Table 3, egg weights were significantly increased by adding Beta-Key at 45 weeks. Betaine has been shown to increase egg size (Attia et al., 2016) which may be attributed to increased protein digestibility and methionine absorption(Augustine and Danforth, 1999; Attia et al., 2016) and by the better efficiency as methyl donor of betaine compared to choline. At 49 weeks, the diet of bath houses was adapted (crude protein content was reduced) which attributed to the egg weight& at 55 weeks, where betaine was similar in weight as the control group.
Albumin height and Haugh units were clearly affected after being stored for 7 days in room temperature. However, betaine significantly improved albumin height and Haugh units after storage. Betaine may be a key tool to decrease cellular degradation in the egg, keeping eggs fresher langer.